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اندیشه فردا - معرفی رشته روانشناسی
سه شنبه هشتم اردیبهشت 1388

معرفی رشته روانشناسی

   نوشته شده توسط: مهدی میرزائی    نوع مطلب :معرفی رشته های دانشگاهی ( انسانی ) ،

روانشناسی

دیباچه: تا 80 سال پیش روانشناسی را مطالعه روح و روان و روانشناس را فردی می‌دانستند که رویداد‌های درونی،‌ ذهنی و مغزی را مثل تصورات، خاطرات،‌ افکار و احساسات مطالعه می‌کند.طبق این تعریف، روانشناسی شاخه‌ای از ذهنی‌ترین بخش دانش انسان؛ یعنی فلسفه بود. اما از اوایل قرن بیستم و با پیشرفت سریع دو علم زیست‌شناسی و فیزیک،‌ روانشناسی نیز مطالعه ذهنی (زندگی روانی) را کنار گذاشت و به مشاهده و مطالعه رفتار موجودات پرداخت. البته هنوز نیز روانشناسان فرآیندهای ذهنی را مطالعه می‌کنند اما این کار را نه به صورت ثبت شخصی ادراکات و احساسات بلکه به شیوه عینی و علمی انجام می‌دهند.متأسفانه‌ هنوز در کشور ما بسیاری‌ از مردم‌، روانشناسی‌ را با کف‌بینی‌ و احضار روح‌ یکی‌ می‌دانند و ما می‌بینیم‌ که‌ کتاب‌هایی‌ با موضوعات‌ فوق‌، به‌ عنوان‌ کتاب‌های‌ روانشناسی‌، فروش‌ فوق‌العاده‌ای‌ دارند. در حالی‌ که‌ روانشناسی‌ شاخه‌ای‌ از علوم‌ زیستی‌ است‌ که‌ هم‌ به‌ مطالعه‌ عینی‌ رفتار قابل‌ مشاهده‌ می‌پردازد و هم‌ به‌ فهم‌ و درک‌ فرآیندهای‌ ذهنی‌ که‌ مستقیماً قابل‌ مشاهده‌ نبوده‌ و براساس‌ داده‌های‌ رفتاری‌ و عصب‌ زیست‌شناختی‌ قابل‌ استنباط‌ است‌، توجه‌ دارد. رشته‌ روانشناسی‌ در مقطع‌ کارشناسی‌ دارای‌ 4 گرایش‌ بالینی‌، آموزش‌ کودکان‌ استثنایی‌، صنعتی‌ و سازمانی‌ و عمومی‌ است‌. در این میان روانشناسی‌ بالینی‌ خدمات‌ تشخیص‌ و درمان‌ (روان‌ درمانی‌) را به‌ افرادی‌ که‌ دچار رفتارهای‌ نابهنجاری‌ مثل‌ افسردگی‌، اضطراب‌، وسواس‌، و غیره‌ هستند، ارائه‌ می‌دهد که‌ این‌ خدمات‌ در سه‌ زمینه‌ تشخیص‌، درمان‌ و پیشنهادِ روش‌هایی‌ برای‌ پیشگیری‌ از معضلات‌ و ناهنجاری‌های‌ رفتاری‌ ارائه‌ می‌شود. روانشناسی‌ صنعتی‌ و سازمانی‌ نیز یافته‌های‌ روانشناسی‌ را در تمام‌ محیط‌های‌ کاری‌ به‌ کار می‌برد؛ یعنی‌ درباره‌ این‌ که‌ محیط‌ کار باید چگونه‌ باشد تا بهترین‌ بازدهی‌ را داشته‌ باشد یا چه‌ متغیرهایی‌ در ارتباط‌ بین‌ کارفرما و کارگر مؤثر است‌ و چه‌ عواملی‌ باعث‌ عدم‌ تفاهم‌ بین‌ کارفرما و کارگر می‌شود، مطالعه‌ می‌کند. روانشناسی‌ عمومی‌ نیز به‌ مطالعه‌ کلیات‌ روانشناسی‌ می‌پردازد و روانشناسی‌ و آموزش‌ کودکان‌ استثنایی‌ کاربرد یافته‌های‌ روانشناسی‌ در رابطه‌ با کودکان‌ استثنایی‌ (تیزهوشان‌ و معلولین‌ جسمانی‌) است‌.
توانایی‌های‌ لازم :
زیست‌شناسی‌ و شیمی‌ در این‌ رشته‌ اهمیت‌ بسیاری‌ دارد و باید پایه‌ علوم‌زیستی‌ دانشجوی‌ این‌ رشته‌ قوی‌ باشد. به‌ همین‌ دلیل‌ امروزه‌ دانشجویان‌ این‌ رشته‌ از بین‌ دو گروه‌ آزمایشی‌ علوم‌انسانی‌ و علوم‌تجربی‌ پذیرفته‌ می‌شوند. از سوی‌ دیگر آمار و ریاضی‌ و زبان‌ انگلیسی‌ در این‌ رشته‌ کاربرد و اهمیت‌ زیادی‌ دارد. دانشجوی‌ این‌ رشته‌ باید نسبت‌ به‌ اطراف‌ و جامعه‌ خود دید عمیقی‌ داشته‌ باشد تا بتواند ظرافت‌های‌ رفتاری‌ افراد را درک‌ کند‌ و به‌ ویژگی‌های‌ روانی‌ افراد پی‌ ببرد.
موقعیت‌ شغلی‌ در ایران :
امروزه‌ روانشناسی‌ با همه‌ جنبه‌های‌ زندگی‌ ما ارتباط‌ دارد و هر اندازه‌ که‌ جامعه‌ پیچیده‌تر شود، روانشناسی‌ نیز نقش‌ مهمتری‌ در حل‌ مسائل‌ آدمی‌ برعهده‌ می‌گیرد. این‌ به‌ معنای‌ فرصت‌های‌ شغلی‌ متنوع‌ و گسترده‌ برای‌ فارغ‌التحصیلان‌ رشته‌ روانشناسی‌ است‌. به‌ گفته‌ کارشناسان‌ این‌ رشته‌، آینده‌ روانشناسی‌ در کشور ما روشن‌ و امیدبخش‌ است‌ و فارغ‌التحصیلان‌ این‌ رشته‌ باید آینده‌ خود را در فردا ببینند. چون‌ کشور ما یکی‌ از کشورهای‌ در حال‌ توسعه‌ است‌ و بدون‌ بهره‌گیری‌ از شاخه‌های‌ مختلف‌ روانشناسی‌ نمی‌تواند توسعه‌ همه‌جانبه‌ داشته‌ باشد. از سوی‌ دیگر کشور ما، کشور جوانی‌ است‌ و امروزه‌ یکی‌ از دغدغه‌های‌ خانواده‌ها، حفظ‌ بهداشت‌ روانی‌ و بالا بردن‌ سطح‌ دانش‌ فرزندانشان‌ می‌باشد که‌ این‌ دو مهم‌ نیز به‌ یاری‌ شاخه‌های‌ مختلف‌ روانشناسی‌ از جمله‌ روانشناسی‌ رشد و روانشناسی‌ تربیتی‌ امکان‌پذیر است‌. البته‌ در حال‌ حاضر فارغ‌التحصیلان‌ این‌ رشته‌ بیشتر‌ جذب‌ آموزش‌ و پرورش‌ می‌شوند یا در شرکت‌ها و سازمان‌ها به‌ عنوان‌ کارشناس‌ روانشناسی‌ فعالیت‌ می‌کنند و عده‌ای‌ نیز به‌ عنوان‌ دستیار متخصص‌ روانشناسی‌ بالینی‌ یا روانپزشک‌ مشغول‌ به‌ کار هستند.
درس‌های‌ این‌ رشته‌ در طول‌ تحصیل :
دروس‌ مشترک‌ در‌ گرایش‌های مختلف روانشناسی :
روانشناسی‌ عمومی‌، علم‌النفس‌ از دیدگاه‌ دانشمندان‌ اسلامی‌، آمار توصیفی‌، فیزیولوژی‌ عمومی‌، کلیات‌ فلسفه‌، مبانی‌ جامعه‌شناسی‌، روانشناسی‌ احساس‌ و ادراک‌، متون‌ روانشناسی‌ به‌ زبان‌ خارجی‌، آمار استنباطی‌، روش‌ تحقیق‌ در روانشناسی‌، روانشناسی‌ فیزیولوژیک‌، روانشناسی‌ تجربی‌، روانشناسی‌ رشد، روانشناسی‌ یادگیری‌، روانشناسی‌ تربیتی‌، روانشناسی‌ اجتماعی‌، روانسنجی‌، انگیزش‌ و هیجان‌، شخصیت‌، آسیب‌شناسی‌ روانی‌، بهداشت‌ روانی‌، روانشناسی‌ مرضی‌ کودک‌، تاریخچه‌ و مکاتب‌ روانشناسی‌.
دروس‌ تخصصی‌ گرایش‌ روانشناسی‌ بالینی‌:
کاربرد مقدماتی‌ روش‌های‌ تشخیص‌ بالینی‌، کاربرد مقدماتی‌ روش‌های‌ درمان‌، مصاحبه‌، سمینار مسائل‌ روانشناسی‌ بالینی‌ در جهان‌ و ایران‌، پژوهش‌های‌ عملی‌ در روانشناسی‌ بالینی‌، روانشناسی‌ پویایی‌ گروه‌، کلیات‌ روانپزشکی‌، بررسی‌ مقدماتی‌ نظریه‌های‌ روان‌ درمانی‌، روانشناسی‌ مشاوره‌ و راهنمایی‌، روانشناسی‌ کودکان‌ استثنایی‌.
دروس‌ تخصصی‌ گرایش‌ روانشناسی‌ عمومی‌:
طرح‌ها و‌ پژوهش‌های‌ آزمایشگاهی‌، مقدمات‌ نورو بسیکولوژی‌، ارزشیابی‌ شخصیت‌، روانشناسی‌ مشاوره‌ و راهنمایی‌، روانشناسی‌ هوش‌ و سنجش‌ آن‌، تفکر و زبان‌، روانشناسی‌ پویایی‌ گروه‌، روانشناسی‌ کودکان‌ استثنایی‌، سمینار در مسائل‌ روانشناسی‌ عمومی‌، اختلالات‌ یادگیری‌، روانشناسی‌ جنایی‌، پژوهش‌های‌ عملی‌ در روانشناسی‌ عمومی‌.
دروس‌ تخصصی‌ گرایش‌ روانشناسی‌ استثنایی‌:
روانشناسی‌ مشاوره‌ و راهنمایی‌، نظریه‌ها و کاربرد آزمون‌های‌ شناختی‌، روانشناسی‌ کودکان‌ تیزهوش‌ و روش‌های‌ آموزش‌ آنها، روانشناسی‌ کودکان‌ عقب‌مانده‌ و روش‌های‌ آموزش‌ آنها، اختلالات‌ تکلم‌ و گفتار درمانی‌، روانشناسی‌ تدریس‌ به‌ کودکان‌ ناشنوا، روانشناسی‌ تدریس‌ به‌ کودکان‌ نابینا، متون‌ روانشناسی‌ کودکان‌ استثنایی‌ به‌ زبان‌های‌ خارجی‌، بهداشت‌ روانی‌ کودکان‌ استثنایی‌ و خانواده‌، زمینه‌ پیشگیری‌ از تولد کودکان‌ عقب ‌افتاده‌، روانشناسی‌ کودکان‌ ناسازگار، روش‌های‌ تغییر و اصلاح‌ رفتار کودکان‌، سمینار مسائل‌ کودکان‌ استثنایی‌ در جهان‌ و ایران‌، پژوهش‌های‌ عملی‌ در روانشناسی‌ و آموزش‌ کودکان‌ استثنایی‌.

لطفا قبل از خارج شدن درنظر سنجی شرکت نمایید ( متشکرم )


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پنجشنبه بیست و نهم فروردین 1398 12:17
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girl4escort
دوشنبه نوزدهم فروردین 1398 21:09
"We must build completely to another crescendo, cheri," he said.
"Therefore we are going to have an ending that might be as none before."

His smile was decadent, his eyes were filled up with lust, as well as soft
skin of his hard cock against my sex was having its intended effect.

I had been feeling a stronger arousal now as I felt his cock slide
between my sensitive lips. I felt your head of
his cock push agonizingly at the doorway of my pussy,
and I need to him to thrust into me hard. Instead he
pulled back and slid his hardness back approximately my clit.


I'd been aching to have him inside, and
I can tell that his should push that wonderful hard cock inside me was growing.
His moans grew to check mine, and I knew the feeling of my wet pussy lips for the
head of his cock was getting excessive both for of us.


"Permit the finale begin," he was quoted saying, anf the husband slid the top of
his cock inside me.

The two of us gasped while he held his cock there for just
a moment. I contracted my pussy to him further inside,
anf the husband threw his head back within the sensation.
Inch by excruciating inch he pushed his cock inside me,
with each time I squeezed my pussy around him.
His cock felt wonderful since it filled me, but I
need to everthing inside me. I rolled sideways and rested my leg against his shoulder, and
hubby plunged his cock all the way in.
 
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